Monday, October 21, 2013



ü  Purpose:
§  To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

ü  Generic Structure:
1. General statement
2. Explanation
3. Closing

ü  Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

ü  Example

The sense of taste is one of a person's five senses. We taste with the help of taste-buds in the tongue.

There are four main kinds of taste: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. All other tastes are just mixtures of two or more of these main types.

The surface of the tongue has more than fifteen thousand taste-buds (or cells). These are connected to the 
brain by special nerves which send the so-called 'tastes messages.

When the tongue comes into contact with food of any kind, the taste-buds will pick up the taste. The nerves then send a message to the brain. This will make us aware of the taste. All this happens in just a few seconds.

There are four kinds of taste-buds, each of which is sensitive to only a particular taste. These four groups are located in different parts of the tongue.

The taste-buds for salty and sweet tastes are found round the tip of the tongue and along its sides. Sour tastes can be picked up only at the sides of the tongue. The taste-buds of the bitter taste are found at the innermost edge of the tongue. There are taste-buds at the centre of the tongue.

The senses of smell and sight can affect taste. The good smell of food increases its taste. Similarly, attractive colours can make food appear tastier and more delicious. If food does not smell good or is dull-coloured, it 
will look tasty and may not taste good at all.

Very hot or cold sensations can make the taste-buds insensitive. Food that is too hot or too cold, when placed in the mouth, will have no tastes at all.

1.  We can taste any kind of food because of ........
A.  the good smell of food
B. the four main kinds of taste
C. the taste-buds in the tongue
D. the senses of smell and sight
E. the taste-buds round the tip of the tongue

2.  When we eat very hot or cold food ........
A. the food will lose its taste.
B. the food won't smell good
C. the taste of the food increases
D. the taste-buds will be sensitive
E. the taste-buds will be very, responsive

3.   The senses of smell and sight ........
A. increase the taste of the food
B. affect the taste of the food
C. make food more delicious
D. make the food look good
E. make the food attractive

4.   The purpose of the text is ........
A. to explain how we can taste any food in the mouth.
B. to give a report about the sense of taste
C. to inform how important the tongue is
D. to describe the use of the tongue
E. to tell the taste of the food

                                           A natural disaster

A natural disaster is a terrible accident, e.g. a great flood, a big fire or an earthquake. It usually causes great suffering and loss of a large sum of money. The casualties are injured or died. Some people are homeless and need medical care.

Floods             occur when the water of rivers, lakes, or streams overflow their banks and pour onto the surrounding land. Floods are caused by many different things. Often heavy rainstorms that last for a brief 
can cause a flood. But not all heavy storms are followed by flooding. If the surrounding land is flat and can absorb the water, no flooding will occur. If, however, the land is hard and rocky, heavy rain cannot be absorbed. Where the banks are low, a river may overflow and flood adjacent lowland.

In many part of the world flood are caused by tropical storms called hurricanes or typhoons. They
 bring destructive winds of high speed, torrents of rain, and flooding. When a flood occurs, the destruction to surrounding land can be severe. Whole villages and towns are sometimes swept away by water pouring swiftly over the land. Railroad track blocked and uprooted from their beds. Highways are washed away.

When a building caught fire, the firemen pitched in to help battle the blaze. Before the pumps were invented, people formed bucket brigades to fight fires. Standing side by side, they formed a human chain from the fire to nearby well or river. They passed buckets of water from to hand to be poured on the flames.

The damage of the fire did depend a great deal on where it happened. In the country or a small village, only a single house might burn down. But in crowded cities, fire often destroyed whole blocks and neighborhoods before being controlled.

1. What can possibly prevent rivers and lakes from overflowing?
a. An absorbent bed
b. A rocky surrounding
c. A low land
d. A high bank.
e. A high road

2. We know from the text that . . . .
a. River can sweep heavy flood
b. People can make money from flood
c. The destruction by flood is always less severe
d. Water flood is absorbed by land.
e. Typhoons caused heavy flood

3. We know from the text that . . . .
a. The pump is the only tool used by fire fighters now
b. The pump helps people to fight fires more efficiently.
c. Fires in big cities are always very big
d. People no longer use buckets to control fire
e. Only firemen can control fires in crowded cities

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